In Eukaryotes Functional Messenger Rna Molecules Are Made From

Functional Messenger RNA Molecules in Eukaryotes Eukaryotes are organisms that have complex cells with a nucleus and other organelles. One of the important processes that happen within eukaryotic cells is transcription, where DNA is copied into RNA. This RNA then undergoes further modifications to become functional messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. In eukaryotes, functional mRNA molecules are made from pre-mRNA. Pre-mRNA is the initial transcript of a gene that undergoes processing to become mature mRNA. This processing involves several steps, including capping, splicing, and polyadenylation. The first step in processing pre-mRNA is capping. This involves the addition of a modified guanine nucleotide to the 5’ end of the pre-mRNA molecule. This cap protects the mRNA from degradation and helps in its translation. The next step is splicing, where introns are removed from the pre-mRNA molecule. Introns are non-coding regions of DNA that do not encode for proteins. Exons are the coding regions of DNA that do encode for proteins. Splicing involves the removal of introns and the joining of exons to form a continuous mRNA molecule. After splicing, polyadenylation occurs. This involves the addition of a poly(A) tail to the 3’ end of the mRNA molecule. This tail helps in mRNA stability and also plays a role in translation. Once the pre-mRNA has been processed and modified, it is exported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm, where it can be translated into protein. This translation involves the use of ribosomes, which read the mRNA sequence and assemble amino acids into a protein chain. In conclusion, functional mRNA molecules in eukaryotes are made from pre-mRNA through a series of processing and modification steps. These steps involve capping, splicing, and polyadenylation, and result in a mature mRNA molecule that can be translated into protein. Understanding this process is important for understanding gene expression and protein synthesis in eukaryotic organisms.